What Your Scores Mean
These scores are calculated as a percentage of the possible points you could have scored for each attribute. This can help you understand how strong your leanings are towards a specific trait. As you might guess, a higher score means you identify with an attribute more. This isn't a right-or-wrong type of score- just an extra indicator of your preferences!
What is the Domain Breakdown?
This is a snapshot of what form of compensation matters most to you and the balance between them. The report is intentionally broad and should be used only as a guide as assess your fit with an opportunity. The three domains (Approach, Environment, and Outcomes) are presented as a diagram proportionally divided to correlate with your responses. We find it helps to see the forest before we focus on the trees.
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Your results have been compiled below! With the Comprehensive Career Guide, you will see your High-low Report, which includes breakdowns of your top 3 and bottom 3 key indicators, as well as your Mid Report, which shows which attributes fall in the center of your workplace preferences.
Check out our guide on How to Read Your Results.
Domain BreakdownWhat's this?
The strength of our Domain scores indicates what domain and category of attribution we value most. While not as specific as the individual results that follow, these results help us better understand our priorities and enable more productive conversations with our employers. Consider focusing negotiations and team-building discussions around the Domains that are strongest, even if you need to give a little on the side of the circle that is smallest. (For more tips on developing Domain-based strategies, contact a Career Placement Specialist.)
The following results represent the Attributes that contribute most to your fit with employment opportunities. With the insights shared below, you should be able to develop a strategy that will effectively support career selection, contract negotiation, employee evaluation, and self-discovery.
Variety Highest Attribute
With variety in your top attributes, you should consider jobs that don’t necessarily look the same from one month to the next, or even from day to day. One option could be project-based jobs. You may also enjoy working on a team where everyone needs to wear multiple hats from time to time (for instance, most startups). Variety comes with unpredictability, which for some is a perk. You get to solve problems, and you’ll often be thrown into situations in which you are not yet an expert. This is a fast track to gaining competency and experience across many different areas.
Variety doesn’t necessarily mean a chaotic or unpredictable workplace (though it can in some fields if that’s what you want). Some jobs, such as K-12 teaching, coaching, and construction, have variety built into them because of the different topics, lessons, projects, and people you interact with every day.
To find a job that’s high on variety, look for positions that have structural reasons for why your work would vary. Does the position entail working for diverse clients on their various needs? From consulting to accounting to home remodeling, working with clients is one way that variety can be built in. Another often overlooked source of variety is working on a small team or in a small company. As part of a smaller firm, relatively few people must address the day-to-day tasks and problems. Everyone has to pitch in for the venture to succeed. This is a good way to avoid boredom.
- How many clients do we work with at any given time, and how different might the jobs be for various clients?
- What will my day-to-day work look like? (Often, in positions with high variety this will be a hard question for them to answer, which is a good thing in this case)
- How big is the team I will be working on and how do job assignments get handed out?
Job Search Tips
- Look for the words “client” and “project” or “project-based” or “many/multiple/different hats.” These are not the only ways to find jobs with high variety, but they’re a great start.
- Want variety? Go work for a startup. There are job boards that post positions specifically for startups and you will likely end up doing work across all sorts of areas in a fast-paced environment.
Autonomy is an APPROACH
Satisfaction in our careers depends on how we do a job, not just the nature of the work performed.
Two people can fill a role effectively but approach their work very differently. Their success and happiness depend largely on their ability to work in the most effective way for them.
With autonomy high in your results, you value being trusted and appreciate having room to figure out your own way of doing things. The intrinsically motivated respond most positively to autonomy, and when given that autonomy they become more motivated.
Autonomy is the level of discretion you have over your work and how you do it and is deeply intertwined with ownership and trust. The higher the skill level needed for a job, the more autonomy you have. Being an expert at something has many perks, and one of them is higher levels of autonomy. Studies show that workers who have higher levels of autonomy in their job tend to have better job performance, satisfaction, organizational commitment, lower work-related stress, less fatigue, and more intrinsic motivation.
You can approach attaining high levels of autonomy from three different angles. Autonomy is largely decided by what position you’re in within the company, what type of work you do, and who your manager is. Some positions lend themselves to more autonomy, but a micromanaging manager can interfere with your independence.
One secret to finding jobs with high autonomy is to become a manager. Managers, however, are not always known for being particularly good at what they do, which is no wonder, because most of them have never had formal training in management (it’s been proven)! Professional management training is a great way to get a high-autonomy job in virtually any field you’re interested in. Consider an MBA or MPA, for example. People who complete these kinds of programs have very high starting salaries, learn skills that can be applied almost anywhere, and usually find jobs with very high levels of autonomy.
You will have success if you look for jobs where your performance is outcome-based and your work processes don’t rely on high levels of coordination. It’s also worth noting that autonomy doesn’t necessarily mean working alone (though it can). High functioning and close-knit teams can still have high levels of individual, and team, autonomy. You’re looking for a role where your tasks are relatively self-contained, and levels of trust are high.
- How is success measured in this role?
- Who else do people in this role need to work with to be successful?
- Who else in the company can do this role? (Often roles that cannot be done by others have higher levels of autonomy—whether that’s being the company data-wizard, tax accountant, or courier. If nobody else can/will do it, it’s harder to micromanage you.)
Job Search Tips
- One of your greatest assets here is current employees; they are often far more willing to share how things actually happen than those in charge of the hiring. You can ask the hiring manager if you can talk to a current employee, or, if you’re a little braver, just reach out to them yourself. Tell them you're considering taking a job at their company and that you’d like to ask them a few questions about working there.
- Jobs with high levels of autonomy often come with higher levels of reward (intrinsic or extrinsic), some can also come with higher levels of risk (for instance, pure commission sales). You now know that you care about autonomy, so think about applying that to your job search. Do an honest self-evaluation to determine how much you want social interaction with co-workers, and/or some level of oversight to keep you on task. That can help you narrow down the types of high-autonomy jobs you’re looking for.
With collaboration high in your results, you should look for jobs where you get to be part of a team. In the sports world, you’re more basketball than cross-country. You’d rather be part of a band than a solo singer-songwriter. This is a useful thing to value because people who have jobs that people assume are mundane have some of the highest levels of job satisfaction. Why? It’s often because the people in those jobs get to work closely with others as part of a team, and that’s what they end up enjoying the most.
Having collaboration in your top three means that you are motivated by contributing to a team. Get beyond the tasks and figure out what the work is actually like. Is this really a team project, or is the team just a bunch of people doing their own thing with very little interaction? We’re social creatures and we love to achieve things together. So go watch Apollo 13 or Remember the Titans, and get ready to find a job where you achieve something by collaborating with others.
- Will I work by myself in this position or collaborate with a team?
- What do others who have this position seem to like most about the job? (see if they say anything about “the people they work with.” That’s a very good sign.)
- Could you tell me more about the team I would be working on? How often do team members see each other and work together?
Job Search Tip
- Again, look behind the curtain. Don’t be turned off by jobs that may look boring from the outside. Accountants, for example, tend to have very high levels of job satisfaction, in large part because of their team-based work. People in these roles often love their jobs because they are part of a team and collaborate on projects. You can leverage this to take good positions, often with higher pay, because you value how and with whom you get to work more than a sexy job title.
These Attributes are the least relevant to your finding a professional fit. While not as important for you to recognize as the positively correlated Attributes, we have found that, because no job is perfect, it is helpful to know what you might be able to give in exchange for what you need from an employer.
Having a job that's low on flexibility can be a wonderful thing, especially if it's coupled with a generous vacation/sick policy. An excellent example here is most government jobs. Many people are not aware, but most types of jobs that are available in the private sector are also available in the public sector. One of the great benefits to such work is that virtually all positions for the federal/state/local government have very firm start and end times, and come with good vacation/sick policies, healthcare, and retirement. The very same positions, outside of government, may come with more flexibility in some ways, but also have a way of taking over your life, keeping you late at work, and providing you less time for other things. Many lawyers, for instance, opt for jobs with the government because they can have a good income and still be home at a predictable time every day.
Many people prefer jobs with rigid time-in/time-out requirements because it gives them a reliable schedule. The right non-flexible job can provide a wonderful work-life balance. Structure allows you to compartmentalize and give more to each aspect of your life.
First things first, scoring low on excitement doesn't mean you like boring work or that you are boring. There are plenty of very boring wilderness firefighters. What this means is that you don't need your work to provide that excitement for you. This is a great asset because it gives you flexibility where others, who really want to find excitement AT WORK, don't have it.
Because excitement is often the result of some amount of chaos, jobs that focus on making things run smoothly, creating steady growth, and organizing or arranging things can be very fulfilling even if they are less exciting.
Excitement is a whole-body experience, and day-in-day-out, excitement can be rough on a person. People who desire excitement at work often pay for it in other areas, like salary. They may also be more susceptible to dropping the ball in the less adrenaline-filled aspects of their life, such as personal development or their relationships. You can maximize your need for adventure and excitement elsewhere, and let work be work.
Remuneration Lowest Attribute
Having remuneration at the bottom of your results table does not mean that you don't care about money. We all need money. What is suggested by this result is that after meeting your basic needs and personal financial goals, how much money you make takes a backseat to other forms of compensation. You might prefer to be “paid” with more time with family, a friendly work environment, or a prestigious title.
A study from Princeton University found that having a higher income increases happiness only up to about $80,000 per year. Beyond that higher pay doesn’t influence our happiness very much, and other things start to matter more. Most people think that being rich will make them happy. Relatedly, most people making $80,000 a year don’t feel rich, but studies show they are just as likely to be happy as people who are making much more money. With remuneration low on your list, you are free to prioritize other values.
Also, with remuneration low on your list, you may struggle to relate to people who are constantly chasing after more money. You may even be tempted to judge their pursuit of wealth. Try to fight this urge. Like you, they are looking for respect and self-worth, and their paycheck might be their measuring stick.
These key-indicators, while not as relevant to your personal strategy, should be studied and understood because over the course of your career it is likely that one or more of these results will increase in importance to you. There also might be an insight or question that will be of value to you.
With location high in your report, it is important that you consider not only who your employer is but also where you are working. The physical environment we work in can have a tremendous impact on our creativity, productivity, and even our mental health. Some people work best in big cities, other small towns. Maybe living near family, or having some physical distance, is critical to your professional success. A commute to work may help you focus, or it may be a burden. And all of this can change over time. As you evaluate opportunities, consider how the geographic and physical environment of your workplace affects your chances for success.
Another key, but often overlooked, aspect of our work lives is the aesthetic of our work environment. For individuals with location high in their results, how their workspace is decorated, the temperature of the office, or even the "vibe" might have a profound impact on their ability to thrive at work. Having some leeway to decorate your own space can also be a big boon.
Covid-19 is changing the calculus of work and location. A 2021 Harvard study found that of those working remotely, only 12% wanted to go back to working in the office every day as they did before. The rest (88%) want to either stay fully remote or end up in a hybrid situation where they work remotely a few days a week and in the office a few days a week.
Even before Covid-19, there was research showing that “homeworking” is associated with increases in employee well-being and more balanced work-home relationships. Another major study in the fall of 2020 found that 94% of employees reported that remote work was as good as or better than working in the office. While companies are currently grappling with what to do, this will have a profound impact in some sectors. The reason for this is simple. The companies that will allow remote work will increasingly get the best talent, while the ones demanding a return to the status quo will only be able to hire employees who live nearby and WANT to commute every day.
Scoring high on location does not mean that you have a strong preference for either remote or in-office work. You might enjoy either one and, because of the last few years, you are likely to have more options than you did pre-Covid. So now it’s not just whether you like your work location, it may be whether you like a work location at all. If you’re staying home, think about arranging your workspace to allow some bumpers between work and other aspects of your life. Spend some thoughtful time and effort on building a physical location that helps you achieve your work and personal goals.
For many in the youngest generation of workers, those in their teens and early 20s, there may be benefits to working in person instead of remotely, at least initially. A recent Microsoft study found that many (but not all) Gen Z employees are not as well served by remote work as those in the older generations. Networking, mentorship, and training are easier in person. Often, workers at this age don’t have enough money yet to build a good work-from-home location, and because of their age, many are still single. Remote work, therefore, can rob them of built-in social connections and be incredibly isolating. Everyone’s situation is different, but location is worth more thought than many give it.
Some may love the fast pace of a hectic and creative open office. Some may love the peace of their own office, with a door between them and the world. Others might rather live in a cabin with their family and get their work done over satellite internet. Even post-Covid, all in-person work offices aren’t going to die, you will just have more choices. You will increasingly have more opportunities to craft not just the career you want, but the location and nature of the life you want to lead. Taking a proactive approach to your location can be central to that.
- Would it be possible to get a tour of the office?
- Where do most of the team live?
- What is the commute like (train, walking, biking)?
Job Search Tips
- Visit the actual location you will be working from. You need to see how you like the space.
- Spend some time thinking about the places you have felt the most inspired and productive. Then try to find employment opportunities that match these places in pace, aesthetics, and geography.
Earlier in our careers, as well as when we are changing industries or job functions, training can be one of the most valuable forms of compensation. Training is an investment. It can be valuable both monetarily and for our long-term progress. Professional training is, on some level, why we go to university and accept apprenticeships or internships. With training high in your results, you might be at a time in your career where gaining access to expertise could be of value to you. Consider a position where you will get quality mentorship and learn the "insiders' tricks" even if this training comes at the cost of a larger starting salary, an impressive title, or other desirable outcomes.
While many focus on the external benefits of their job, you can focus more on the internal. Rather than simply giving you things of value, you want a job that will make you more valuable. This pays great dividends in the future. Studies show that we are constantly seeing ourselves on a path towards our “ideal self.” Though we may not talk about it a lot, we do care about it, and a job that you feel is helping you to move in that direction is a job where you are happier and less likely to leave.
The extrinsic motivations for training are easy to explain. More skills generally equate to greater monetary reward for using those skills. Don’t overlook the internal benefits, however. When you feel you are improving in something, you feel better about yourself, and for good reason! You’re succeeding on your path toward a more ideal self! In a sense, when a job is helping you to develop, there is more to who you are today than there was yesterday. Training may be formal, through workshops, tuition reimbursement, or certifications, or informal, through challenging but (mostly) achievable goals that require you to learn new things to succeed.
Recognize that not all training or mentors are equally valuable to you. You've likely heard that "the advice is only as good as the person giving it." Be selective about who you trust to train you. The mentor-mentee relationship is one of the most powerful in business. Choosing the right mentor can accelerate your career rapidly. Just as selecting the wrong trainer can set you back.
- Can you tell me about any training programs you have for new hires?
- Are senior members of the company available to advise newer employees?
- If I have a question or want feedback on my performance, to whom should I direct my questions?
Job Search Tips
- Seek out positions with formal mentorship or onboarding programs for new hires.
- Identify the attributes of your ideal mentor and then seek out opportunities to work with individuals who possess these qualities.
Valuing leadership does not mean that you need to be the boss (though it may indicate that you are well suited to taking a leadership role). Valuing leadership suggests that who is in charge matters to you, and there’s a good reason for that. Believing in the company's leadership and its vision will help you succeed and increase your satisfaction at work.
It is also useful to be aware that your manager and your company leadership are two distinct things. Surprisingly, evidence suggests that company leadership is generally more responsible for people quitting than their direct managers are. Even in situations with great managers but poor company leadership, only 38% of employees intend to stay with the company. However, in situations with poor managers but great company leaders, 60% intend to stay! In situations with great management AND leaders, a full 89% intend to stay. So, leadership matters a lot and people can, and do, overlook flaws in middle management when company leadership is great.
Studies show that in “good” companies managers make a big difference in whether or not people leave their jobs, but in “bad” companies, good or bad managers make little difference in a person’s decision to leave (they just leave). In the end, you don’t have a lot of say in who the company leaders are, but your manager will change fairly frequently. Ask current employees about their feelings about company leadership (not in front of other people). If they are effusive and practically glowing with positive feelings, this is probably a great place to work.
Also, keep an eye out for opportunities to take a management role. As someone who values good leadership, you likely have the instincts that would make you a good leader. Often when people who value leadership work in an environment where the management team is not effective or inspiring, they are able to fill the need for leadership and create value for the company and opportunities for themselves.
- Can you tell me about the CEO, VP, or Director)?
- What do you find most inspiring about working here?
- What opportunities are there for advancement?
Job Search Tips
- Research the company founders and current leadership team. See if you can identify any similarities or red flags.
- Apply for positions that have supervisory responsibilities. This will help you develop a leadership style or utilize your natural ability to lead.
Sociability relates to the importance of your relationship with others, whether they are your coworkers, clients, vendors, or customers. The people that we work with are often those with whom we spend the most time. As someone with sociability high in your results, you are particularly attuned to these relationships, whether positive or negative. It is therefore important that you do your best to choose an environment that suits your personality and your social needs.
Everywhere you work will have a company culture. Even within the same industry, one firm might be very professional and another more laid back. Your ability to fit in and be a valuable part of the team may depend on your innate connection to the company’s culture and the team. There is nothing wrong with you if you don't fit in at a particular business. Like romantic relationships, sometimes it just doesn't work out.
You would like to avoid negative social situations and for good reason! Studies have estimated that between turnover, loss of productivity, loss of commitment to the company, and decreased creativity, having one major jerk on staff can cost a company over $100,000 annually.
There are situations, such as highly competitive jobs/cultures, where being intimidating or putting others down can appear to help people gain power. The effectiveness of the organization and team, however, will suffer as those individuals have built no goodwill or trust, yet they will carry on thinking that their cutthroat ways are the key to their success. Numerous studies show that this is false, but they still believe it, and so will others. You will often run into some amount of competitiveness in your workplace, and that’s ok, but look for red flags that the entire culture is competition-based.
Being high in sociability does NOT mean that you are emotionally dependent; it means that you desire and appreciate the relationships you have with people at work. It also doesn’t mean that you can’t handle having a jerk around. The world’s top researcher on dealing with workplace jerks suggests that his favorite way to cope with them is emotional detachment, or teaching yourself not to care about negativity from that person. It’s their problem, not yours, and you don’t have to play their game. This is also a useful life skill in general.
You aren’t necessarily doomed because of less ideal social situations at work, it’s just harder. It’s even possible to gain great satisfaction from being a force for goodwill, forgiveness, and service in a previously less-functional group. You’re never going to find a job with perfect people who are always kind to each other. So just do what you can to be a force for good, foster a healthy relationship with your coworkers, and then go from there.
Studies show that if you work for a jerk, you are more likely to become one. So, no matter who ends up around you, take control of your own choices and choose to be a decent human being first. As someone who prizes sociability, you’ll appreciate the friendships and goodwill that come from being kind at work.
And finally, take this mantra to heart: Be slow to label others as jerks, be quick to label yourself as one. Being quick to label yourself the jerk, or at least pausing to consider how you might be contributing to the problem is vital. All humans tend to deny and downplay their imperfections. Just because you highly value sociability doesn’t necessarily mean you’re good at it (sorry!). But knowing that you value your workplace relationships means that you have the advantage of knowing what to get good at. You may benefit more than anybody else by learning and practicing the skills of sociability, teamwork, peacemaking, and friendship-building.
- Can I meet a few other members of the team?
- Could you describe the company culture to me?
- Can you describe your ideal coworker?
Job Search Tips
- When considering opportunities, pay special attention to how the employees interact with one another. Try to even sit in on a meeting. Can you see yourself contributing to their conversations?
- Try to find someone who has worked with or for the company you are considering. Often the impressions others have of an employer and their team can help us determine how we might fit in.
- It doesn’t take many jerks to affect a workplace. Feel free to ask employees if any such people are working there. A word of caution, don’t ask for WHO they are—that’s gossip, and it sets everyone up for trouble. Instead ask something like, “I don’t want any names, but are there some workers here that you feel generally make your life difficult/miserable?” If you get a couple of people who say yes, realize that there is a decent chance this will be more contagious than it might seem upfront.
Having status-seeking relatively low in your motivations means that you can more easily find value and meaning in your work without being constantly recognized by others, (though it virtually always feels good to be admired). It can also mean that even in less meaningful/enjoyable job you are getting enough respect and esteem in your life outside of work that you don’t need as much affirmation from your job and co-workers.
Not needing as much external validation opens up good opportunities that others might not enjoy and has the side benefit of helping to keep you away from some of the potential pitfalls and temptations of self-aggrandizement. On the flip side, you might not do a good enough job of self-promotion and might even downplay your accomplishments. You might want to look a little deeper and see if the work you have done is better than you are giving it credit for. Because you don’t get as much satisfaction as others from external affirmation, it might not occur to you how important it is to recognize your own achievements.
Having purpose at the bottom of your list doesn't mean that your life is without meaning, nor does it mean that you aren't passionate. It means that you don’t cound on your job to satisfy your passions or give your life purpose. Very often it means that you use the resources provided by your job to facilitate the things that do bring you purpose. Despite all the “follow your passion” rhetoric you were taught about your future career growing up, you are using your work to allow you to find purpose elsewhere and facilitate your other passions. This is very healthy, and more likely to lead to a happy and fulfilled life than trying to find your purpose from your job.
As you search for opportunities, consider that people often make compromises to work somewhere purposeful. The good news is that you don't need to do this. You can look for a job that maximizes your other career goals, even if it means you aren't working for an organization with a mission about which you have deeply held feelings. Flexibility and free time are great tradeoffs to bargain for, and studies show they can help you find more meaning in your life than others who seek purpose primarily from their work.
Scholars often delineate between generalists and specialists. Because you care less about being a specialist, that means you can focus all of your efforts on being an excellent generalist. Great generalists are extremely valuable because they can “speak the language” of different areas of expertise and help them work together. The best generalists are excellent at making connections between different specialties because they have some familiarity with all of them. Specialists are generally less equipped to do this and must rely on generalists to work well with different groups. Generalists often become the best managers.
The generalists who thrive are often specialists in organization and social politics. What this means is that they are particularly good at helping teams work together, organizing their efforts, smoothing over social mismatches between various factions, and helping everyone get the most from their work.
Having predictability toward the bottom of your test results means that structure and clarity are less necessary for you to succeed. You should consider a wide range of options, even those with no formal structure. People with low predictability demands thrive in startups or relatively new and fast-growing companies. In these situations, everyone comes into work every day prepared to help pitch in on just about anything. Done right, this can be very exciting.
Although predictability is low in your values, it does not mean that you can thrive in a situation with terrible communication and vague expectations. For instance, being an author comes with very low levels of predictability. There is no set work schedule, and it is very difficult to know if your book will be successful. Unpredictability is built into the job. Imagine you have an editor that gives you the feedback to “make this better.” This is unhelpful and can even be counterproductive. Even if your job is unpredictable, work with your managers to make sure you have a good sense of what they’re looking for.
While having predictability toward the bottom of results will allow you to trade formal expectations for qualities that are higher on your list, understand that you will still need to demonstrate how you bring value to your employer. Without clear expectations, it can be challenging to prove your value. Think about ways you might demonstrate how you are contributing.
Having clarity in your bottom three means that you are ok with relatively high levels of uncertainty. High tolerance for uncertainty, and even a little chaos, can allow you to thrive where others falter. Still, beware of managers that have unnecessarily vague expectations.
High tolerance for uncertainty is inherently entrepreneurial and makes you well suited for being on the cutting edge of new initiatives. You are a good fit for spearheading the creation of new projects within companies or even creating new companies. Consider looking for jobs in startups. There are job boards exclusively for positions in startups. These jobs often come with high levels of uncertainty, creativity, team comradery, and even a little company ownership, which can sometimes pay off in big ways. You never know, and that’s kind of the point. People who score very high on clarity have a hard time in creative fields, and often burn out. Because you don’t (right now) you can potentially thrive in fields such as the arts and entertainment where outcomes tend to be subjective and success is very hard to define upfront but easier to recognize after the fact.
The Job-Hunt Guidebook
A collection of the most important myths and truths found in the last 20 years of academic studies on interviews, resumes, and applications.
The Truth Behind Job Postings
The great mismatch between how hiring managers view job postings and how applicants view job postings, and how that’s derailing applicants.
The Three Things Employers are Looking For in Applications
in Applications and Interviews and the central questions the interviewer is asking themselves about you.
The Four Lies Employers are Worried About in Your Application
- These affect how they view all applicants, even the 100% honest
- How this changes the way you need to present yourself
- Detailed and specific steps you can take to use this knowledge in your application, resume, and interviews to rise to the very top of the stack