What Your Scores Mean
These scores are calculated as a percentage of the possible points you could have scored for each attribute. This can help you understand how strong your leanings are towards a specific trait. As you might guess, a higher score means you identify with an attribute more. This isn't a right-or-wrong type of score- just an extra indicator of your preferences!
What is the Domain Breakdown?
This is a snapshot of what form of compensation matters most to you and the balance between them. The report is intentionally broad and should be used only as a guide as assess your fit with an opportunity. The three domains (Approach, Environment, and Outcomes) are presented as a diagram proportionally divided to correlate with your responses. We find it helps to see the forest before we focus on the trees.
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Your results have been compiled below! With the Comprehensive Career Guide, you will see your High-low Report, which includes breakdowns of your top 3 and bottom 3 key indicators, as well as your Mid Report, which shows which attributes fall in the center of your workplace preferences.
Check out our guide on How to Read Your Results.
Domain BreakdownWhat's this?
The strength of our Domain scores indicates what domain and category of attribution we value most. While not as specific as the individual results that follow, these results help us better understand our priorities and enable more productive conversations with our employers. Consider focusing negotiations and team-building discussions around the Domains that are strongest, even if you need to give a little on the side of the circle that is smallest. (For more tips on developing Domain-based strategies, contact a Career Placement Specialist.)
The following results represent the Attributes that contribute most to your fit with employment opportunities. With the insights shared below, you should be able to develop a strategy that will effectively support career selection, contract negotiation, employee evaluation, and self-discovery.
Purpose Highest Attribute
With purpose high in your results, you should look for opportunities to connect your efforts with the employer's mission, or even to a deeper purpose. You will likely find the greatest satisfaction in your work if you are part of a cause or have a clear sense of who you are serving and are not just collecting a paycheck or working up the corporate ladder. Focus on what matters most to you and look to connect with organizations that share your passions. Realize that you can find purpose in many different areas, including in your contribution to clients, your co-workers/team, or the overarching goal/mission of the organization.
The trend over the last decades has been for people to come into the workforce hoping to receive more purpose from their jobs than previous generations did. This is tricky because satisfaction is based on expectations, and high, but unmet, expectations can lead to disillusionment, which is devastating to intrinsic motivation. Your labor and your life are intrinsically valuable, so you want your hours of effort each day to contribute towards making a difference in something you care about. Of course, you can make a difference in your relationships and hobbies outside of work. But if you scored high in purpose, you want to feel that the work you are doing is making a difference in the world.
Making a difference comes down to our humanity. We are social creatures which is one of our greatest strengths. This means that making a difference comes from usefully serving other people, or even things (such as the environment, trees, or stray animals). The more you can draw a connection to how the work you do serves others the happier you will be. There’s not just one way to do this either. Find what works for you. Surprisingly, many accountants feel high levels of meaning in their work. An in-depth study discovered more than 10 different ways that they found that meaning. Some felt meaning in their role as the referee for the financial marketplace, others found great meaning in helping their companies organize their resources, while others loved contributing to their team and coworkers.
It is worth knowing that not everyone is like you. Many people won't feel deeply connected to the mission or will simply consider it just a nice side benefit to the job. Their approach is just fine. Try to avoid being frustrated by those whose passion for their work is not equal to yours.
In the end, there are more ways to find meaning in your work than most realize. However, almost no jobs will feel that way all the time. Doctors spend a lot of time doing paperwork, and firefighters spend a lot of time on false alarms and waiting in the station, so temper your expectations a little bit. In the end, purpose comes from relationships and service. Even in the best jobs you won’t feel it all the time but try to find a position that resonates with the contributions that you want to make.
Finding purpose in your job is more like feeling healthy. It takes work that is sometimes disruptive and unpleasant, and that doesn’t mean you’re spending every second basking in ecstasy and pleasure because of your health. Instead, it will infuse your entire life and upgrade everything a little bit. It will make the hard/sick/unhealthy times a little better. It will also give you moments from time to time that are rich and powerful, where all of the meaning of what you are doing comes rushing in on you. Savor these. But remember, even if you have a very fulfilling job, don’t forsake your life and relationships outside of work; research shows that longer-term purposes and life-satisfaction almost always relies more heavily on how we prioritize the “life” part of the work-life balance.
- Can you tell me more about the people your organization serves?
- Why did you (the founders) start the company?
- How do you (the interviewer) feel about the mission of the company?
Job Search Tips
- Look at the company mission statement. It will tell you what the company values. Try to find a company that is aligned with your values.
- See if you can find customer testimonials that speak to the impact the company has made.
With clarity high in your results, you should prioritize positions that have clearly defined processes, outcomes, and expectations. Many of the most satisfied employees are so happy because they see that they have become very good, even expert, at something. The feeling of mastery, and making progress towards mastery, is one of the greatest gifts work can offer.
This doesn’t mean that you need your hand held to succeed—far from it. It simply means that success is clearly defined. Through hard work, ingenuity, and brilliance you can become more successful in your role every day. Look for jobs where there is little mystery to how success is measured or achieved, then you can spend your time becoming great instead of guessing what you’re supposed to do.
One great way to add some clarity to your role is to seek careers that are marked with formal credentials and certifications. This helps you and others keep track of what you are capable of doing. It is easier to measure your skills in a credentialled field. (This is why credentialing is very difficult for painters and waiters, but much easier for doctors and accountants). Clarity in what you need to know lends itself to clarity in what you need to do, which is something you appreciate, and for good reason.
Remember that, as with predictability, you can help your manager provide you more clarity. Just do it in a humble and non-accusatory way. Say something like, “I have a few questions for you so that I can make sure I give you exactly what you're looking for,” are almost always going to lead to more clarity.
- What would a typical workday look like?
- What would your dream employee for this position become excellent at?
- How clearly is success is measured in this role?
Job Search Tip
- The interview is a great place to gain insight. Some clarity comes with the type of position you are applying for, but far more often comes from how clearly management lays out their expectations. Ask lots of questions about what is expected and pay attention to how precise or “squishy” the answers are. “Squishy” expectations often lead to high levels of uncertainty, making it harder to know what things to spend time on and undercutting mastery.
With variety in your top attributes, you should consider jobs that don’t necessarily look the same from one month to the next, or even from day to day. One option could be project-based jobs. You may also enjoy working on a team where everyone needs to wear multiple hats from time to time (for instance, most startups). Variety comes with unpredictability, which for some is a perk. You get to solve problems, and you’ll often be thrown into situations in which you are not yet an expert. This is a fast track to gaining competency and experience across many different areas.
Variety doesn’t necessarily mean a chaotic or unpredictable workplace (though it can in some fields if that’s what you want). Some jobs, such as K-12 teaching, coaching, and construction, have variety built into them because of the different topics, lessons, projects, and people you interact with every day.
To find a job that’s high on variety, look for positions that have structural reasons for why your work would vary. Does the position entail working for diverse clients on their various needs? From consulting to accounting to home remodeling, working with clients is one way that variety can be built in. Another often overlooked source of variety is working on a small team or in a small company. As part of a smaller firm, relatively few people must address the day-to-day tasks and problems. Everyone has to pitch in for the venture to succeed. This is a good way to avoid boredom.
- How many clients do we work with at any given time, and how different might the jobs be for various clients?
- What will my day-to-day work look like? (Often, in positions with high variety this will be a hard question for them to answer, which is a good thing in this case)
- How big is the team I will be working on and how do job assignments get handed out?
Job Search Tips
- Look for the words “client” and “project” or “project-based” or “many/multiple/different hats.” These are not the only ways to find jobs with high variety, but they’re a great start.
- Want variety? Go work for a startup. There are job boards that post positions specifically for startups and you will likely end up doing work across all sorts of areas in a fast-paced environment.
These Attributes are the least relevant to your finding a professional fit. While not as important for you to recognize as the positively correlated Attributes, we have found that, because no job is perfect, it is helpful to know what you might be able to give in exchange for what you need from an employer.
Scholars often delineate between generalists and specialists. Because you care less about being a specialist, that means you can focus all of your efforts on being an excellent generalist. Great generalists are extremely valuable because they can “speak the language” of different areas of expertise and help them work together. The best generalists are excellent at making connections between different specialties because they have some familiarity with all of them. Specialists are generally less equipped to do this and must rely on generalists to work well with different groups. Generalists often become the best managers.
The generalists who thrive are often specialists in organization and social politics. What this means is that they are particularly good at helping teams work together, organizing their efforts, smoothing over social mismatches between various factions, and helping everyone get the most from their work.
Having collaboration at the bottom of your results means you enjoy jobs that many others might find too isolating. This might be because you just happen to like it that way, or perhaps because you feel that your social needs are being met outside of your job through your bowling team, chess club, seven kids, partner, or the hobby farm you come home to every day. Great! Organizations need people who can thrive in jobs where they are self-directed and largely independent. Working successfully with minimal oversight can often lead to opportunities for promotion.
Although you enjoy captaining your own boat, that doesn’t mean that you (or any human) will thrive in isolation. So, even if you can succeed as a lone wolf, make sure you find ways to connect with others in meaningful ways. Having lunch with friends or coworkers, getting a coffee, drinks, or some food outside of work, invite a coworker to join you or your family for a hike on the weekend, or even participating in a thriving meme-sharing culture on Slack can help you build worthwhile professional relationships.
Predictability Lowest Attribute
Having predictability toward the bottom of your test results means that structure and clarity are less necessary for you to succeed. You should consider a wide range of options, even those with no formal structure. People with low predictability demands thrive in startups or relatively new and fast-growing companies. In these situations, everyone comes into work every day prepared to help pitch in on just about anything. Done right, this can be very exciting.
Although predictability is low in your values, it does not mean that you can thrive in a situation with terrible communication and vague expectations. For instance, being an author comes with very low levels of predictability. There is no set work schedule, and it is very difficult to know if your book will be successful. Unpredictability is built into the job. Imagine you have an editor that gives you the feedback to “make this better.” This is unhelpful and can even be counterproductive. Even if your job is unpredictable, work with your managers to make sure you have a good sense of what they’re looking for.
While having predictability toward the bottom of results will allow you to trade formal expectations for qualities that are higher on your list, understand that you will still need to demonstrate how you bring value to your employer. Without clear expectations, it can be challenging to prove your value. Think about ways you might demonstrate how you are contributing.
These key-indicators, while not as relevant to your personal strategy, should be studied and understood because over the course of your career it is likely that one or more of these results will increase in importance to you. There also might be an insight or question that will be of value to you.
Valuing leadership does not mean that you need to be the boss (though it may indicate that you are well suited to taking a leadership role). Valuing leadership suggests that who is in charge matters to you, and there’s a good reason for that. Believing in the company's leadership and its vision will help you succeed and increase your satisfaction at work.
It is also useful to be aware that your manager and your company leadership are two distinct things. Surprisingly, evidence suggests that company leadership is generally more responsible for people quitting than their direct managers are. Even in situations with great managers but poor company leadership, only 38% of employees intend to stay with the company. However, in situations with poor managers but great company leaders, 60% intend to stay! In situations with great management AND leaders, a full 89% intend to stay. So, leadership matters a lot and people can, and do, overlook flaws in middle management when company leadership is great.
Studies show that in “good” companies managers make a big difference in whether or not people leave their jobs, but in “bad” companies, good or bad managers make little difference in a person’s decision to leave (they just leave). In the end, you don’t have a lot of say in who the company leaders are, but your manager will change fairly frequently. Ask current employees about their feelings about company leadership (not in front of other people). If they are effusive and practically glowing with positive feelings, this is probably a great place to work.
Also, keep an eye out for opportunities to take a management role. As someone who values good leadership, you likely have the instincts that would make you a good leader. Often when people who value leadership work in an environment where the management team is not effective or inspiring, they are able to fill the need for leadership and create value for the company and opportunities for themselves.
- Can you tell me about the CEO, VP, or Director)?
- What do you find most inspiring about working here?
- What opportunities are there for advancement?
Job Search Tips
- Research the company founders and current leadership team. See if you can identify any similarities or red flags.
- Apply for positions that have supervisory responsibilities. This will help you develop a leadership style or utilize your natural ability to lead.
With excitement high in your results, you're looking for something that provides you a literal physical/psychological reaction, at least from time to time. Excitement and work are not often spoken of together because most jobs, even great ones that people really enjoy, aren't usually exciting. Luckily, there are plenty that are. Nobody wants a monotonous job, but you would probably prefer something beyond just “not monotonous.”
Excitement is mental, but it has effects on the whole body. It is motivating, thrilling, and can enliven your senses. Excitement is also associated with perceived danger, and there are many jobs with a risk of physical danger (firefighter, etc.). These important jobs require people who thrive in dangerous situations. Physical danger, however, is not the only form of perceived danger. Social danger can also be exhilarating. Virtually any type of performance in front of a crowd is exciting, from arts to athletics, to public speaking, sales, or even teaching.
Excitement at work often overlaps with unpredictability. A hallmark of exciting work is solving unexpected problems on the fly. Sometimes these will place you into situations that you weren’t prepared for, and to be honest, are not even fully qualified to handle. But you may be the best or only one available to do it. Done right, this can lead to a lot of growth and personal development. People who can make things happen AND make good decisions on the fly in high-stress situations are diamonds in the rough.
Forging a new path is also exciting. When you can go to bed at night knowing that something new was created today because of the work that you did, that's exciting. While some of the jobs listed above may provide obvious thrills, unpredictability and urgency go hand in hand with excitement and can be found in many positions. Others will often pass up on such jobs because they are unpredictable. It's their loss and your high.
- What parts of this job do you think will be the most exciting?
- Every job has some boring parts. What do you feel are the most tedious parts of this job?
- Why do you feel most of your employees enjoy working here?
Job Search Tips
- Sometimes excitement is a form of payment all by itself, so the most exciting jobs often don't pay as much as more monotonous jobs. Don't let that deter you! If your financial needs will be met, considering the excitement as part of your pay.
- What's exciting is different for everyone, so you may have a unique opportunity if you are excited by something that others are not. Find dog grooming to be very exciting? Great! Use that!
How much money you make impacts practically every aspect of your life. It determines what you can buy, where you live, and when you can retire. With remuneration high on your list, you are aware of the power of money. Your lifestyle, and, to a degree, your self-worth are tied to how much you make. Accordingly, your job needs to be aligned with your life and financial goals. It may feel similarly important to you that your pay accurately reflects your contribution to your employer. If what you are paid and how you value yourself are out of balance, you will likely be dissatisfied at work. You might even come to resent your employer.
Pay transparency can be crucial for those who value remuneration highly. A common source of conflict between individuals with high remuneration in their results and their employers is the differences in pay between employees, particularly if the employee's contribution is viewed as inconsistent with their compensation. These issues are exacerbated when that information is discovered rather than disclosed.
Valuing remuneration does not mean that you will tolerate a terrible job. One huge study of current employees found that across all income levels, pay is not the top predictor of workplace satisfaction. Instead, it is the culture and values of the organization, followed closely by the quality of senior leadership and career opportunities within the company. These are the hallmarks of good employers. This makes sense. Making a lot of money can help you achieve certain goals in your life, but it does not make a miserable job much less miserable, nor does it make up for relationship casualties that can come from an unbalanced life. There is absolutely nothing wrong with valuing remuneration. Money creates opportunities and can enable a very balanced, fulfilling life. Keeping that balance is up to you. So, within the scope of your financial goals, continue to diligently research the jobs that are available and pick the one that meets your financial needs, but that you will also enjoy as much as possible.
- What is the starting salary (if not posted)?
- If I perform well, what can I expect to earn five years from now?
- Are there opportunities to earn additional commissions or bonus pay?
Job Search Tips
- With remuneration high on your list, you should consider employers who are transparent about pay. It would also be worthwhile to consider commission-based employment or opportunities with performance-based bonuses.
- Apply for jobs where the pay scale can be determined. Some employers publish their salary information. For other positions, you may need to search for this information elsewhere. Often you will be able to find at least an approximate salary. Without salary insights, you will likely apply to jobs that aren't viable options for you, based on your financial requirements.
Sociability relates to the importance of your relationship with others, whether they are your coworkers, clients, vendors, or customers. The people that we work with are often those with whom we spend the most time. As someone with sociability high in your results, you are particularly attuned to these relationships, whether positive or negative. It is therefore important that you do your best to choose an environment that suits your personality and your social needs.
Everywhere you work will have a company culture. Even within the same industry, one firm might be very professional and another more laid back. Your ability to fit in and be a valuable part of the team may depend on your innate connection to the company’s culture and the team. There is nothing wrong with you if you don't fit in at a particular business. Like romantic relationships, sometimes it just doesn't work out.
You would like to avoid negative social situations and for good reason! Studies have estimated that between turnover, loss of productivity, loss of commitment to the company, and decreased creativity, having one major jerk on staff can cost a company over $100,000 annually.
There are situations, such as highly competitive jobs/cultures, where being intimidating or putting others down can appear to help people gain power. The effectiveness of the organization and team, however, will suffer as those individuals have built no goodwill or trust, yet they will carry on thinking that their cutthroat ways are the key to their success. Numerous studies show that this is false, but they still believe it, and so will others. You will often run into some amount of competitiveness in your workplace, and that’s ok, but look for red flags that the entire culture is competition-based.
Being high in sociability does NOT mean that you are emotionally dependent; it means that you desire and appreciate the relationships you have with people at work. It also doesn’t mean that you can’t handle having a jerk around. The world’s top researcher on dealing with workplace jerks suggests that his favorite way to cope with them is emotional detachment, or teaching yourself not to care about negativity from that person. It’s their problem, not yours, and you don’t have to play their game. This is also a useful life skill in general.
You aren’t necessarily doomed because of less ideal social situations at work, it’s just harder. It’s even possible to gain great satisfaction from being a force for goodwill, forgiveness, and service in a previously less-functional group. You’re never going to find a job with perfect people who are always kind to each other. So just do what you can to be a force for good, foster a healthy relationship with your coworkers, and then go from there.
Studies show that if you work for a jerk, you are more likely to become one. So, no matter who ends up around you, take control of your own choices and choose to be a decent human being first. As someone who prizes sociability, you’ll appreciate the friendships and goodwill that come from being kind at work.
And finally, take this mantra to heart: Be slow to label others as jerks, be quick to label yourself as one. Being quick to label yourself the jerk, or at least pausing to consider how you might be contributing to the problem is vital. All humans tend to deny and downplay their imperfections. Just because you highly value sociability doesn’t necessarily mean you’re good at it (sorry!). But knowing that you value your workplace relationships means that you have the advantage of knowing what to get good at. You may benefit more than anybody else by learning and practicing the skills of sociability, teamwork, peacemaking, and friendship-building.
- Can I meet a few other members of the team?
- Could you describe the company culture to me?
- Can you describe your ideal coworker?
Job Search Tips
- When considering opportunities, pay special attention to how the employees interact with one another. Try to even sit in on a meeting. Can you see yourself contributing to their conversations?
- Try to find someone who has worked with or for the company you are considering. Often the impressions others have of an employer and their team can help us determine how we might fit in.
- It doesn’t take many jerks to affect a workplace. Feel free to ask employees if any such people are working there. A word of caution, don’t ask for WHO they are—that’s gossip, and it sets everyone up for trouble. Instead ask something like, “I don’t want any names, but are there some workers here that you feel generally make your life difficult/miserable?” If you get a couple of people who say yes, realize that there is a decent chance this will be more contagious than it might seem upfront.
With training at the bottom of your results, you are likely comfortable figuring it out as you go. Many companies, particularly startups, do not have formal training and mentorship programs. This lack of structure and process is frustrating for many people and can lead to turnover. But, for someone who can cope or maybe even thrive with a lack of direction, there is an opportunity to provide value and find success. Since you can compromise on training, you will have more options. If you’re happy with your job position, but don’t feel a great need for new training, there’s a good chance you are starting to turn more of your creative attention towards projects and relationships outside of your work. This is very healthy.
Opportunities for training become fewer and fewer as your responsibilities increase and when you work independently. A word of caution, don't run before you can walk. We all need training. Don't be too eager to reject the voice of experience. However, with training low on your list of professional needs, you could be ready to consider more of a senior role.
Having status-seeking relatively low in your motivations means that you can more easily find value and meaning in your work without being constantly recognized by others, (though it virtually always feels good to be admired). It can also mean that even in less meaningful/enjoyable job you are getting enough respect and esteem in your life outside of work that you don’t need as much affirmation from your job and co-workers.
Not needing as much external validation opens up good opportunities that others might not enjoy and has the side benefit of helping to keep you away from some of the potential pitfalls and temptations of self-aggrandizement. On the flip side, you might not do a good enough job of self-promotion and might even downplay your accomplishments. You might want to look a little deeper and see if the work you have done is better than you are giving it credit for. Because you don’t get as much satisfaction as others from external affirmation, it might not occur to you how important it is to recognize your own achievements.
Autonomy is an APPROACH
Satisfaction in our careers depends on how we do a job, not just the nature of the work performed.
Two people can fill a role equally effectively but approach their work entirely differently. Their success and happiness depend largely on their ability to work in the most effective way for them.
Scoring low on autonomy doesn’t mean you aren’t self-motivated or independent. The opposite of autonomy is coordination. This indicates that you like being part of a team. You enjoy the interactions and the feeling of being an important part of a multi-faceted team or process. Many high-profile careers are relatively low autonomy (acting, professional sports, politics, etc.) because their outcome and processes are deeply intertwined with the work of others, and that’s great! Don’t look at low autonomy as a negative.
That said, nobody likes to be micromanaged. Even in the most interdependent positions, find out how managers oversee and correct the work of people in positions you are considering. Micro-managing drives everyone crazy and makes it harder to do great work, so ask a current employee if management is respectful of individuals and their work. Also, when you become the manager, remember that giving people as much discretion as you can within the needs of the project has vastly better outcomes than micromanaging. Unnecessarily reducing autonomy can obliterate intrinsic motivation.
Having a job that's low on flexibility can be a wonderful thing, especially if it's coupled with a generous vacation/sick policy. An excellent example here is most government jobs. Many people are not aware, but most types of jobs that are available in the private sector are also available in the public sector. One of the great benefits to such work is that virtually all positions for the federal/state/local government have very firm start and end times, and come with good vacation/sick policies, healthcare, and retirement. The very same positions, outside of government, may come with more flexibility in some ways, but also have a way of taking over your life, keeping you late at work, and providing you less time for other things. Many lawyers, for instance, opt for jobs with the government because they can have a good income and still be home at a predictable time every day.
Many people prefer jobs with rigid time-in/time-out requirements because it gives them a reliable schedule. The right non-flexible job can provide a wonderful work-life balance. Structure allows you to compartmentalize and give more to each aspect of your life.
With location in your bottom results, you can confidently pursue the best opportunities regardless of their location. You are highly adaptable and can adjust to life in the big city, small town, near family, or far from it. This does not mean that you don't have preferences, just that those preferences don't strongly determine your level of satisfaction at work.
Agility can be a very powerful advantage when job hunting but if overindulged can prevent you from developing the deep roots that are often essential for advancement. Stay flexible on location but keep an eye out for aspects of your location that really resonate with you and try to maintain and maximize those going forward. (Note: Location preference is a domain that often changes over the course of a career. It may be in your top three at one stage of your career and in the bottom at another. Don't assume because it’s at the bottom now, which suggests that you can be happy working anywhere, that you will always be geographically versatile).
The Job-Hunt Guidebook
A collection of the most important myths and truths found in the last 20 years of academic studies on interviews, resumes, and applications.
The Truth Behind Job Postings
The great mismatch between how hiring managers view job postings and how applicants view job postings, and how that’s derailing applicants.
The Three Things Employers are Looking For in Applications
in Applications and Interviews and the central questions the interviewer is asking themselves about you.
The Four Lies Employers are Worried About in Your Application
- These affect how they view all applicants, even the 100% honest
- How this changes the way you need to present yourself
- Detailed and specific steps you can take to use this knowledge in your application, resume, and interviews to rise to the very top of the stack