What Your Scores Mean
These scores are calculated as a percentage of the possible points you could have scored for each attribute. This can help you understand how strong your leanings are towards a specific trait. As you might guess, a higher score means you identify with an attribute more. This isn't a right-or-wrong type of score- just an extra indicator of your preferences!
What is the Domain Breakdown?
This is a snapshot of what form of compensation matters most to you and the balance between them. The report is intentionally broad and should be used only as a guide as assess your fit with an opportunity. The three domains (Approach, Environment, and Outcomes) are presented as a diagram proportionally divided to correlate with your responses. We find it helps to see the forest before we focus on the trees.
Your results have been compiled below! With the Comprehensive Career Guide, you will see your High-low Report, which includes breakdowns of your top 3 and bottom 3 key indicators, as well as your Mid Report, which shows which attributes fall in the center of your workplace preferences.
Check out our guide on How to Read Your Results.
Domain BreakdownWhat's this?
The strength of our Domain scores indicates what domain and category of attribution we value most. While not as specific as the individual results that follow, these results help us better understand our priorities and enable more productive conversations with our employers. Consider focusing negotiations and team-building discussions around the Domains that are strongest, even if you need to give a little on the side of the circle that is smallest. (For more tips on developing Domain-based strategies, contact a Career Placement Specialist.)
The following results represent the Attributes that contribute most to your fit with employment opportunities. With the insights shared below, you should be able to develop a strategy that will effectively support career selection, contract negotiation, employee evaluation, and self-discovery.
Autonomy Highest Attribute
Autonomy is an APPROACH
Satisfaction in our careers depends on how we do a job, not just the nature of the work performed.
Two people can fill a role effectively but approach their work very differently. Their success and happiness depend largely on their ability to work in the most effective way for them.
With autonomy high in your results, you value being trusted and appreciate having room to figure out your own way of doing things. The intrinsically motivated respond most positively to autonomy, and when given that autonomy they become more motivated.
Autonomy is the level of discretion you have over your work and how you do it and is deeply intertwined with ownership and trust. The higher the skill level needed for a job, the more autonomy you have. Being an expert at something has many perks, and one of them is higher levels of autonomy. Studies show that workers who have higher levels of autonomy in their job tend to have better job performance, satisfaction, organizational commitment, lower work-related stress, less fatigue, and more intrinsic motivation.
You can approach attaining high levels of autonomy from three different angles. Autonomy is largely decided by what position you’re in within the company, what type of work you do, and who your manager is. Some positions lend themselves to more autonomy, but a micromanaging manager can interfere with your independence.
One secret to finding jobs with high autonomy is to become a manager. Managers, however, are not always known for being particularly good at what they do, which is no wonder, because most of them have never had formal training in management (it’s been proven)! Professional management training is a great way to get a high-autonomy job in virtually any field you’re interested in. Consider an MBA or MPA, for example. People who complete these kinds of programs have very high starting salaries, learn skills that can be applied almost anywhere, and usually find jobs with very high levels of autonomy.
You will have success if you look for jobs where your performance is outcome-based and your work processes don’t rely on high levels of coordination. It’s also worth noting that autonomy doesn’t necessarily mean working alone (though it can). High functioning and close-knit teams can still have high levels of individual, and team, autonomy. You’re looking for a role where your tasks are relatively self-contained, and levels of trust are high.
- How is success measured in this role?
- Who else do people in this role need to work with to be successful?
- Who else in the company can do this role? (Often roles that cannot be done by others have higher levels of autonomy—whether that’s being the company data-wizard, tax accountant, or courier. If nobody else can/will do it, it’s harder to micromanage you.)
Job Search Tips
- One of your greatest assets here is current employees; they are often far more willing to share how things actually happen than those in charge of the hiring. You can ask the hiring manager if you can talk to a current employee, or, if you’re a little braver, just reach out to them yourself. Tell them you're considering taking a job at their company and that you’d like to ask them a few questions about working there.
- Jobs with high levels of autonomy often come with higher levels of reward (intrinsic or extrinsic), some can also come with higher levels of risk (for instance, pure commission sales). You now know that you care about autonomy, so think about applying that to your job search. Do an honest self-evaluation to determine how much you want social interaction with co-workers, and/or some level of oversight to keep you on task. That can help you narrow down the types of high-autonomy jobs you’re looking for.
With variety in your top attributes, you should consider jobs that don’t necessarily look the same from one month to the next, or even from day to day. One option could be project-based jobs. You may also enjoy working on a team where everyone needs to wear multiple hats from time to time (for instance, most startups). Variety comes with unpredictability, which for some is a perk. You get to solve problems, and you’ll often be thrown into situations in which you are not yet an expert. This is a fast track to gaining competency and experience across many different areas.
Variety doesn’t necessarily mean a chaotic or unpredictable workplace (though it can in some fields if that’s what you want). Some jobs, such as K-12 teaching, coaching, and construction, have variety built into them because of the different topics, lessons, projects, and people you interact with every day.
To find a job that’s high on variety, look for positions that have structural reasons for why your work would vary. Does the position entail working for diverse clients on their various needs? From consulting to accounting to home remodeling, working with clients is one way that variety can be built in. Another often overlooked source of variety is working on a small team or in a small company. As part of a smaller firm, relatively few people must address the day-to-day tasks and problems. Everyone has to pitch in for the venture to succeed. This is a good way to avoid boredom.
- How many clients do we work with at any given time, and how different might the jobs be for various clients?
- What will my day-to-day work look like? (Often, in positions with high variety this will be a hard question for them to answer, which is a good thing in this case)
- How big is the team I will be working on and how do job assignments get handed out?
Job Search Tips
- Look for the words “client” and “project” or “project-based” or “many/multiple/different hats.” These are not the only ways to find jobs with high variety, but they’re a great start.
- Want variety? Go work for a startup. There are job boards that post positions specifically for startups and you will likely end up doing work across all sorts of areas in a fast-paced environment.
Valuing leadership does not mean that you need to be the boss (though it may indicate that you are well suited to taking a leadership role). Valuing leadership suggests that who is in charge matters to you, and there’s a good reason for that. Believing in the company's leadership and its vision will help you succeed and increase your satisfaction at work.
It is also useful to be aware that your manager and your company leadership are two distinct things. Surprisingly, evidence suggests that company leadership is generally more responsible for people quitting than their direct managers are. Even in situations with great managers but poor company leadership, only 38% of employees intend to stay with the company. However, in situations with poor managers but great company leaders, 60% intend to stay! In situations with great management AND leaders, a full 89% intend to stay. So, leadership matters a lot and people can, and do, overlook flaws in middle management when company leadership is great.
Studies show that in “good” companies managers make a big difference in whether or not people leave their jobs, but in “bad” companies, good or bad managers make little difference in a person’s decision to leave (they just leave). In the end, you don’t have a lot of say in who the company leaders are, but your manager will change fairly frequently. Ask current employees about their feelings about company leadership (not in front of other people). If they are effusive and practically glowing with positive feelings, this is probably a great place to work.
Also, keep an eye out for opportunities to take a management role. As someone who values good leadership, you likely have the instincts that would make you a good leader. Often when people who value leadership work in an environment where the management team is not effective or inspiring, they are able to fill the need for leadership and create value for the company and opportunities for themselves.
- Can you tell me about the CEO, VP, or Director)?
- What do you find most inspiring about working here?
- What opportunities are there for advancement?
Job Search Tips
- Research the company founders and current leadership team. See if you can identify any similarities or red flags.
- Apply for positions that have supervisory responsibilities. This will help you develop a leadership style or utilize your natural ability to lead.
These Attributes are the least relevant to your finding a professional fit. While not as important for you to recognize as the positively correlated Attributes, we have found that, because no job is perfect, it is helpful to know what you might be able to give in exchange for what you need from an employer.
Having collaboration at the bottom of your results means you enjoy jobs that many others might find too isolating. This might be because you just happen to like it that way, or perhaps because you feel that your social needs are being met outside of your job through your bowling team, chess club, seven kids, partner, or the hobby farm you come home to every day. Great! Organizations need people who can thrive in jobs where they are self-directed and largely independent. Working successfully with minimal oversight can often lead to opportunities for promotion.
Although you enjoy captaining your own boat, that doesn’t mean that you (or any human) will thrive in isolation. So, even if you can succeed as a lone wolf, make sure you find ways to connect with others in meaningful ways. Having lunch with friends or coworkers, getting a coffee, drinks, or some food outside of work, invite a coworker to join you or your family for a hike on the weekend, or even participating in a thriving meme-sharing culture on Slack can help you build worthwhile professional relationships.
Having remuneration at the bottom of your results table does not mean that you don't care about money. We all need money. What is suggested by this result is that after meeting your basic needs and personal financial goals, how much money you make takes a backseat to other forms of compensation. You might prefer to be “paid” with more time with family, a friendly work environment, or a prestigious title.
A study from Princeton University found that having a higher income increases happiness only up to about $80,000 per year. Beyond that higher pay doesn’t influence our happiness very much, and other things start to matter more. Most people think that being rich will make them happy. Relatedly, most people making $80,000 a year don’t feel rich, but studies show they are just as likely to be happy as people who are making much more money. With remuneration low on your list, you are free to prioritize other values.
Also, with remuneration low on your list, you may struggle to relate to people who are constantly chasing after more money. You may even be tempted to judge their pursuit of wealth. Try to fight this urge. Like you, they are looking for respect and self-worth, and their paycheck might be their measuring stick.
Sociability Lowest Attribute
Scoring low on sociability does not mean that you are naturally bad at networking, nor does it mean that you work best alone. It just means that you do not require as much social interaction to be fulfilled at work. With sociability low in your rankings you might not be greatly impacted by relationships with your co-workers. Office politics can have little or no impact on your life unless they make getting the job done more difficult. You can confidently seek employment that is remote, or independent.
Sociability is one of the rarest attributes to find at the bottom, most people need to interact with others to achieve any degree of personal satisfaction. You may need to go out of your way to interact with others and to help them feel welcomed and valued as members of the team. This is particularly true if you are in leadership. Your progress at work will also largely depend on your ability to interact with others. Networking can be critical to advancement.
These key-indicators, while not as relevant to your personal strategy, should be studied and understood because over the course of your career it is likely that one or more of these results will increase in importance to you. There also might be an insight or question that will be of value to you.
With clarity high in your results, you should prioritize positions that have clearly defined processes, outcomes, and expectations. Many of the most satisfied employees are so happy because they see that they have become very good, even expert, at something. The feeling of mastery, and making progress towards mastery, is one of the greatest gifts work can offer.
This doesn’t mean that you need your hand held to succeed—far from it. It simply means that success is clearly defined. Through hard work, ingenuity, and brilliance you can become more successful in your role every day. Look for jobs where there is little mystery to how success is measured or achieved, then you can spend your time becoming great instead of guessing what you’re supposed to do.
One great way to add some clarity to your role is to seek careers that are marked with formal credentials and certifications. This helps you and others keep track of what you are capable of doing. It is easier to measure your skills in a credentialled field. (This is why credentialing is very difficult for painters and waiters, but much easier for doctors and accountants). Clarity in what you need to know lends itself to clarity in what you need to do, which is something you appreciate, and for good reason.
Remember that, as with predictability, you can help your manager provide you more clarity. Just do it in a humble and non-accusatory way. Say something like, “I have a few questions for you so that I can make sure I give you exactly what you're looking for,” are almost always going to lead to more clarity.
- What would a typical workday look like?
- What would your dream employee for this position become excellent at?
- How clearly is success is measured in this role?
Job Search Tip
- The interview is a great place to gain insight. Some clarity comes with the type of position you are applying for, but far more often comes from how clearly management lays out their expectations. Ask lots of questions about what is expected and pay attention to how precise or “squishy” the answers are. “Squishy” expectations often lead to high levels of uncertainty, making it harder to know what things to spend time on and undercutting mastery.
Earlier in our careers, as well as when we are changing industries or job functions, training can be one of the most valuable forms of compensation. Training is an investment. It can be valuable both monetarily and for our long-term progress. Professional training is, on some level, why we go to university and accept apprenticeships or internships. With training high in your results, you might be at a time in your career where gaining access to expertise could be of value to you. Consider a position where you will get quality mentorship and learn the "insiders' tricks" even if this training comes at the cost of a larger starting salary, an impressive title, or other desirable outcomes.
While many focus on the external benefits of their job, you can focus more on the internal. Rather than simply giving you things of value, you want a job that will make you more valuable. This pays great dividends in the future. Studies show that we are constantly seeing ourselves on a path towards our “ideal self.” Though we may not talk about it a lot, we do care about it, and a job that you feel is helping you to move in that direction is a job where you are happier and less likely to leave.
The extrinsic motivations for training are easy to explain. More skills generally equate to greater monetary reward for using those skills. Don’t overlook the internal benefits, however. When you feel you are improving in something, you feel better about yourself, and for good reason! You’re succeeding on your path toward a more ideal self! In a sense, when a job is helping you to develop, there is more to who you are today than there was yesterday. Training may be formal, through workshops, tuition reimbursement, or certifications, or informal, through challenging but (mostly) achievable goals that require you to learn new things to succeed.
Recognize that not all training or mentors are equally valuable to you. You've likely heard that "the advice is only as good as the person giving it." Be selective about who you trust to train you. The mentor-mentee relationship is one of the most powerful in business. Choosing the right mentor can accelerate your career rapidly. Just as selecting the wrong trainer can set you back.
- Can you tell me about any training programs you have for new hires?
- Are senior members of the company available to advise newer employees?
- If I have a question or want feedback on my performance, to whom should I direct my questions?
Job Search Tips
- Seek out positions with formal mentorship or onboarding programs for new hires.
- Identify the attributes of your ideal mentor and then seek out opportunities to work with individuals who possess these qualities.
With location high in your report, it is important that you consider not only who your employer is but also where you are working. The physical environment we work in can have a tremendous impact on our creativity, productivity, and even our mental health. Some people work best in big cities, other small towns. Maybe living near family, or having some physical distance, is critical to your professional success. A commute to work may help you focus, or it may be a burden. And all of this can change over time. As you evaluate opportunities, consider how the geographic and physical environment of your workplace affects your chances for success.
Another key, but often overlooked, aspect of our work lives is the aesthetic of our work environment. For individuals with location high in their results, how their workspace is decorated, the temperature of the office, or even the "vibe" might have a profound impact on their ability to thrive at work. Having some leeway to decorate your own space can also be a big boon.
Covid-19 is changing the calculus of work and location. A 2021 Harvard study found that of those working remotely, only 12% wanted to go back to working in the office every day as they did before. The rest (88%) want to either stay fully remote or end up in a hybrid situation where they work remotely a few days a week and in the office a few days a week.
Even before Covid-19, there was research showing that “homeworking” is associated with increases in employee well-being and more balanced work-home relationships. Another major study in the fall of 2020 found that 94% of employees reported that remote work was as good as or better than working in the office. While companies are currently grappling with what to do, this will have a profound impact in some sectors. The reason for this is simple. The companies that will allow remote work will increasingly get the best talent, while the ones demanding a return to the status quo will only be able to hire employees who live nearby and WANT to commute every day.
Scoring high on location does not mean that you have a strong preference for either remote or in-office work. You might enjoy either one and, because of the last few years, you are likely to have more options than you did pre-Covid. So now it’s not just whether you like your work location, it may be whether you like a work location at all. If you’re staying home, think about arranging your workspace to allow some bumpers between work and other aspects of your life. Spend some thoughtful time and effort on building a physical location that helps you achieve your work and personal goals.
For many in the youngest generation of workers, those in their teens and early 20s, there may be benefits to working in person instead of remotely, at least initially. A recent Microsoft study found that many (but not all) Gen Z employees are not as well served by remote work as those in the older generations. Networking, mentorship, and training are easier in person. Often, workers at this age don’t have enough money yet to build a good work-from-home location, and because of their age, many are still single. Remote work, therefore, can rob them of built-in social connections and be incredibly isolating. Everyone’s situation is different, but location is worth more thought than many give it.
Some may love the fast pace of a hectic and creative open office. Some may love the peace of their own office, with a door between them and the world. Others might rather live in a cabin with their family and get their work done over satellite internet. Even post-Covid, all in-person work offices aren’t going to die, you will just have more choices. You will increasingly have more opportunities to craft not just the career you want, but the location and nature of the life you want to lead. Taking a proactive approach to your location can be central to that.
- Would it be possible to get a tour of the office?
- Where do most of the team live?
- What is the commute like (train, walking, biking)?
Job Search Tips
- Visit the actual location you will be working from. You need to see how you like the space.
- Spend some time thinking about the places you have felt the most inspired and productive. Then try to find employment opportunities that match these places in pace, aesthetics, and geography.
Status is different from power or financial reward. With status high on your list, you likely value respect/admiration, voluntary deference from others, and prestige (or having your advice sought by others). Status-seeking is universal and can lead to considerable long-term benefits.
It is important to understand that status-seeking is not inherently selfish. Rather than calling it status, call it “earned respect.” Earned respect distinguishes employees who have exceeded expectations. This means that you are particularly attuned to the value of the evaluations of other humans. Caring about others, and what they think, is a great thing! It can obviously be overdone. You need to be able to do the right thing even if it won’t help you socially/politically. You also need to learn to feel good about yourself even if others have negative ideas about you. Often, those social signals are helping to point you in the right direction.
You might benefit from a position where you will be able to stand out quickly. One good way to do this is to put yourself in a “big fish, small pond” situation where from the get-go your employer is grateful, and even a little surprised, to have someone like you joining them.
Being the expert of something on a team is also a great way to enjoy earned respect. Get some valuable skills and join a team where your contributions are vital. If you enjoy a little more competition, find a job that focuses largely on individual contributions and recognizes them.
Remember, the best way to obtain status is similar to the best way to network. Help people. Trust, deference, and esteem don’t usually come from self-promotion; they come from service and contribution.
- Looking to the future, is there a clear path to promotion? What does that look like here?
- Tell me a little bit about some of your top performers and what makes them stand out?
- If it’s ok with you I’d love to hear a little about what stands out to you in my application. (NOTE: this isn’t for ego-boosting, this is to get a sense of how much they value/are impressed by you from the get-go. Having them go through a few good points about your application can’t hurt you in the hiring process either)
Job Search Tips
- When you interact with the company pay attention to how easy it is to tell who the top performers are, or if it is a team, to understand what role or expertise each member brings to the table. How visible these things are will give you a clue into the ways respect is valued and given.
- One of the great devastations to earned respect is managers who take credit for other people’s actions. This can be tough to figure out, as no one ever admits to doing this. This is, however, a great question for you to ask some current employees in confidence. You may benefit from questions such as, “I’ve heard about some tough situations at other places where management or supervisors sometimes take credit for other people’s work. How much of a concern do you feel that is here?”
Having predictability toward the bottom of your test results means that structure and clarity are less necessary for you to succeed. You should consider a wide range of options, even those with no formal structure. People with low predictability demands thrive in startups or relatively new and fast-growing companies. In these situations, everyone comes into work every day prepared to help pitch in on just about anything. Done right, this can be very exciting.
Although predictability is low in your values, it does not mean that you can thrive in a situation with terrible communication and vague expectations. For instance, being an author comes with very low levels of predictability. There is no set work schedule, and it is very difficult to know if your book will be successful. Unpredictability is built into the job. Imagine you have an editor that gives you the feedback to “make this better.” This is unhelpful and can even be counterproductive. Even if your job is unpredictable, work with your managers to make sure you have a good sense of what they’re looking for.
While having predictability toward the bottom of results will allow you to trade formal expectations for qualities that are higher on your list, understand that you will still need to demonstrate how you bring value to your employer. Without clear expectations, it can be challenging to prove your value. Think about ways you might demonstrate how you are contributing.
Having a job that's low on flexibility can be a wonderful thing, especially if it's coupled with a generous vacation/sick policy. An excellent example here is most government jobs. Many people are not aware, but most types of jobs that are available in the private sector are also available in the public sector. One of the great benefits to such work is that virtually all positions for the federal/state/local government have very firm start and end times, and come with good vacation/sick policies, healthcare, and retirement. The very same positions, outside of government, may come with more flexibility in some ways, but also have a way of taking over your life, keeping you late at work, and providing you less time for other things. Many lawyers, for instance, opt for jobs with the government because they can have a good income and still be home at a predictable time every day.
Many people prefer jobs with rigid time-in/time-out requirements because it gives them a reliable schedule. The right non-flexible job can provide a wonderful work-life balance. Structure allows you to compartmentalize and give more to each aspect of your life.
Scholars often delineate between generalists and specialists. Because you care less about being a specialist, that means you can focus all of your efforts on being an excellent generalist. Great generalists are extremely valuable because they can “speak the language” of different areas of expertise and help them work together. The best generalists are excellent at making connections between different specialties because they have some familiarity with all of them. Specialists are generally less equipped to do this and must rely on generalists to work well with different groups. Generalists often become the best managers.
The generalists who thrive are often specialists in organization and social politics. What this means is that they are particularly good at helping teams work together, organizing their efforts, smoothing over social mismatches between various factions, and helping everyone get the most from their work.
Having purpose at the bottom of your list doesn't mean that your life is without meaning, nor does it mean that you aren't passionate. It means that you don’t cound on your job to satisfy your passions or give your life purpose. Very often it means that you use the resources provided by your job to facilitate the things that do bring you purpose. Despite all the “follow your passion” rhetoric you were taught about your future career growing up, you are using your work to allow you to find purpose elsewhere and facilitate your other passions. This is very healthy, and more likely to lead to a happy and fulfilled life than trying to find your purpose from your job.
As you search for opportunities, consider that people often make compromises to work somewhere purposeful. The good news is that you don't need to do this. You can look for a job that maximizes your other career goals, even if it means you aren't working for an organization with a mission about which you have deeply held feelings. Flexibility and free time are great tradeoffs to bargain for, and studies show they can help you find more meaning in your life than others who seek purpose primarily from their work.
First things first, scoring low on excitement doesn't mean you like boring work or that you are boring. There are plenty of very boring wilderness firefighters. What this means is that you don't need your work to provide that excitement for you. This is a great asset because it gives you flexibility where others, who really want to find excitement AT WORK, don't have it.
Because excitement is often the result of some amount of chaos, jobs that focus on making things run smoothly, creating steady growth, and organizing or arranging things can be very fulfilling even if they are less exciting.
Excitement is a whole-body experience, and day-in-day-out, excitement can be rough on a person. People who desire excitement at work often pay for it in other areas, like salary. They may also be more susceptible to dropping the ball in the less adrenaline-filled aspects of their life, such as personal development or their relationships. You can maximize your need for adventure and excitement elsewhere, and let work be work.
The Job-Hunt Guidebook
A collection of the most important myths and truths found in the last 20 years of academic studies on interviews, resumes, and applications.
The Truth Behind Job Postings
The great mismatch between how hiring managers view job postings and how applicants view job postings, and how that’s derailing applicants.
The Three Things Employers are Looking For in Applications
in Applications and Interviews and the central questions the interviewer is asking themselves about you.
The Four Lies Employers are Worried About in Your Application
- These affect how they view all applicants, even the 100% honest
- How this changes the way you need to present yourself
- Detailed and specific steps you can take to use this knowledge in your application, resume, and interviews to rise to the very top of the stack